Move back one step  Move forward one step  List of themes  Map of themes
Larger font Smaller font Default font

Resources for language and culture in Ulster

History of Ulster
English in Ulster
Belfast English
Derry English
Links with Scotland


English in Northern Ireland

Ulster-Scots: general information
Ulster-Scots: linguistic studies
Ulster-Scots: language

Placenames and surnames

Ulster Irish: linguistic studies
Ulster Irish: language

Journals and newspapers

   History of Ulster

   Links with Scotland

See also the section on Irish and Scottish Gaelic below.

   English in Northern Ireland

An overview of cultural, demographic and geographic aspects of forms of English in Northern Ireland with an extensive description of their structures.

   Ulster-Scots: general information

Ulster-Scots Community Network

Ulster-Scots Academy

   Ulster-Scots: linguistic studies

The Academic Study of Ulster-Scots: Essays for and by Robert J Gregg. (2006, edited by Anne Smyth, Michael Montgomery and Philip Robinson, published by the Ulster Folk and Transport Museum, Cultra, Co. Down, Northern Ireland. The above image is a screenshot of the electronic version of this resource to be found at

A grammatical study of Ulster-Scots

A single-volume dictionary of English vocabulary from Ulster

Extract from the Concise Ulster Dictionary

A popular book on traditional vocabulary in Ulster-Scots. There is a fully searchable version (fourth edition) of this dictionary maintained at the Ulster-Scots Academy website. A kindle edition is also available.

A collection of articles on language and culture along with items of fictional prose and poetry

A collection of poetry written in Ulster-Scots

   Placenames and surnames

Website of the Northern Ireland Place-Name Project at Queen’s University, Belfast which has already published several volumes.

A short dictionary of Ulster placenames

A dictionary of Ulster surnames

   The transportation of English from Ulster

The story of Ulster emigration to America and its influence on American English

Connections with the New World

A study of transported English at overseas locations throughout the world


Two studies of external connections with Ulster (with Scotland and with New Zealand respectively)

   Ulster Irish

Dialects of Ulster Irish

Connections between Ulster Irish and Scottish Gaelic

A study of the relationship of Protestants to the Irish language over the past few centuries

A collection of poetry in Irish and Scottish Gaelic

   Websites of general relevance to language and culture in Ulster

  Ulster-Scots Agency, Belfast

  Ulster-Scots Language Society, Belfast

  Centre for Irish and Scottish Studies, Ulster University

  Ulster Folk and Transport Museum

Note: The old URL now redirects to (‘National Museums Northern Ireland’)

  Ulster-Scots Society of America

  Ulster American Folk Park

  Ulster-Scots Online


The magazine for Ulster-Scots (includes some language items)

Journal of the Ulster Folk and Transport Museum in Cultra near Belfast.

The Ulster Scot newspaper


Adams, George Brendan 1958. ‘The emergence of Ulster as a distinct dialect area’, Ulster Folklife 4: 61-73.

Adams, George Brendan 1966a. ‘Linguistic aspects of a baronial survey in North Armagh’, Ulster Dialect Archive Bulletin 5: 39-48.

Adams, George Brendan 1966b. ‘Glossary of household terms’, Ulster Folklife 12: 31-4.

Adams, George Brendan 1978b. ‘Some Ulster words describing persons and animals’, Ulster Folklife 24: 69-82.

Adams, George Brendan 1980. ‘Common features in Ulster Irish and Ulster English’, in Thelwall (ed.), pp. 85-104.

Adams, George Brendan 1981a. ‘Dialect work in Ulster: An historical account of research in the area’, in Barry (ed.), pp. 5-17.

Adams, George Brendan 1981b. ‘The voiceless velar fricative in Northern Hiberno-English’, in Barry (ed.), pp. 106-17.

Adams, George Brendan (ed.) 1964. Ulster dialects: An Introductory Symposium. Holywood, Co. Down: Ulster Folk and Transport Museum.

Barry, Michael (ed.) 1981. Aspects of English Dialects in Ireland, Vol 1. Papers Arising from the Tape-Recorded Survey of Hiberno-English Speech. Belfast: Institute for Irish Studies.

Braidwood, John 1964. ‘Ulster and Elizabethan English’, in Adams (ed.), pp. 5-109.

Braidwood, John 1965. ‘Local bird names in Ulster - a glossary’, Ulster Folklife 11: 98-135.

Braidwood, John 1969. The Ulster Dialect Lexicon. Belfast: Queens University of Belfast.

Braidwood, John 1972. ‘Terms for ‘left-handed’ in the Ulster dialects’, Ulster Folklife 18: 98-110.

Corrigan, Karen P. 1993. ‘Gaelic and early English influences on South Armagh English’, Ulster Folklife 39, 15-28.

Corrigan, Karen P. 2000a. ‘What bees to be maun be: Aspects of deontic and epistemic modality in a northern dialect of Irish English’, English World-Wide 21.1: 25-62.

Corrigan, Karen P. 2000b. ‘What are ‘small clauses’ doing in South Armagh English, Irish and Planter English?’, in Tristram (ed.), pp. 75-96.

Cronin, Michael and Cormac Ó Cuilleanáin (eds) 2003. The Languages of Ireland. Dublin: Four Courts Press.

Erskine, John and Gordon Lucy 1999. (eds) Varieties of Scottishness. Exploring the Ulster Scottish Connection. Belfast: The Institute of Irish Studies, Queen’s University of Belfast.

Fenton, James 2014 [1995]. The hamely tongue. A personal record of Ulster-Scots in County Antrim. Fourth edition. Newtownards: Ulster-Scots Academy.

Görlach, Manfred 2000. ‘Ulster Scots: A language?’, in Kirk and Ó Baoill (eds), pp. 13-31.

Görlach, Manfred 2002. A Textual History of Scots. Heidelberg: Winter.

Gregg, Robert J. 1959. ‘Notes on the phonology of the Antrim dialect. II. Historical phonology’, Orbis 8: 400-24.

Gregg, Robert J. 1964. ‘Scotch-Irish urban speech in Ulster’, in Adams (ed.), pp. 163-92.

Gregg, Robert J. 1972. ‘The Scotch-Irish dialect boundaries in Ulster’, in Wakelin (ed.), pp. 109-39.

Gregg, Robert J. 1985. The Scotch-Irish Dialect Boundary in the Province of Ulster. Ottawa: Canadian Federation for the Humanities.

Jones, Charles (ed.) 1997. The Edinburgh History of the Scots Language. Edinburgh: University Press.

Kallen, Jeffrey L. 1999. ‘Irish English and the Ulster Scots controversy’, Mallory (ed.), pp. 70-85.

Kelly,William and John R. Young (eds) 2004. Ulster and Scotland, 1600-2000. History, language and identity. Dublin: Four Courts Press.

Kingsmore, Rona 1995. Ulster Scots Speech. A Sociolinguistic Study. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press.

Kirk, John M. 1998. ‘Ulster Scots. Realities and myths’, Ulster Folklife 44, 69-93.

Kirk, John M. 1999. “The dialect vocabulary of Ulster”, in: Cuadernos de Filolgia Inglesa, 8: 305-34.

Kirk, John M. and Georgina Millar 1998. ‘Verbal aspect in the Scots and English of Ulster’, Scottish language 17: 82-107.

Kirk, John M. and Dónall Ó Baoill (eds) 2001. Language links: the languages of Scotland and Ireland. Belfast: Queen´s University.

Lunney, Linde 1994. ‘Ulster attitudes to Scottishness: the eighteenth century and after’, in Wood (ed.), pp. 56-70.

Macafee, Caroline (ed.) 1996. A Concise Ulster Dictionary. Oxford: University Press.

Mallory, James P. (ed.) 1999. Language in Ulster. Special issue of Ulster Folklife (45).

Montgomery, Michael 1997. ‘The rediscovery of the Ulster Scots language’, in Schneider (ed.), pp. 211-26.

Montgomery, Michael 1999. ‘The position of Ulster Scots’, in Mallory (ed.), pp. 89-105.

Montgomery, Michael 2006. From Ulster to America: The Scotch-Irish Heritage of American English. Belfast: Ulster Historical Foundation.

Montgomery, Michael and Robert Gregg 1997. ‘The Scots language in Ulster’, in Jones (ed.), pp. 569-622.

Montgomery, Michael and Anne Smyth (eds) 2003. A Blad o Ulstèr-Scotch frae Ullans: Ulster-Scots Culture, Language and Writing. Belfast: Ullans Press.

Patterson, Brad (ed.) 2005. Ulster-New Zealand Migration and Cultural Transfers. Dublin: Four Courts Press. Robinson, Philip 1989a. ‘The Ulster plantation’, Ulster Local Studies 11.2: 20-30.

Robinson, Philip 1989b. ‘The Scots language in seventeenth-century Ulster’, Ulster Folklife 35, 86-99.

Robinson, Philip 1994 [1984]. The Plantation of Ulster. British Settlement in an Irish Landscape, 1600 - 1670. Belfast: Ulster Historical Foundation.

Robinson, Philip 1997. Ulster-Scots. A Grammar of the Traditional Written and Spoken Language. Belfast: Ullans Press.

Robinson, Philip 2003. ‘The historical presence of Ulster-Scots in Ireland’ in Cronin and Ó Cuilleanáin (eds), pp. 112-26.

Schneider, Edgar (ed.) 1997. Englishes Around the World. 2 Vols. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Skea, Margaret. 1982. Change and Variation in the Lexicon of a Non-Standard Dialect. A Sociolinguistic Study of Dialect Semantics in North Down. PhD thesis. Jordanstown: Ulster Polytechnic.

Smyth, Anne, Michael Montgomery and Philip Robinson (eds) 2006. The Academic Study of Ulster-Scots: Essays for and by Robert J Gregg. Cultra, Co. Down, Northern Ireland: Ulster Folk and Transport Museum.

Thelwall, Robin (ed.) 1980. Linguistic Studies in Honour of Paul Christophersen. Occasional Papers in Linguistics and Language Learning, Vol. 7. Coleraine: New University of Ulster.

Todd, Loreto 1990. Words Apart. A Dictionary of Northern Irish English. Gerrards Cross: Colin Smythe.

Tristram, Hildegard L.C. (ed.) 2000. The Celtic Englishes II. Heidelberg: Carl Winter.

Wood, Ian S. (ed.) 1994. Scotland and Ulster. Edinburgh: The Mercat Press.